By Cao Tian Yu, Wen Hua Yu She Hui Zhuan Xing English
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Extra info for Culture and Social Transformations in Reform Era China
Community ethics had to develop familial affection into “respect,” which has a more universal meaning. This also shows an effort by Liang to modernize traditional ethics. Liang clearly states in his 1934 article “Explanation of Village Schools and Township Schools” (“村学乡学释义”) that village schools and township schools are both rural organizations. On the one hand, this kind of organization fully contains the spirit of the modern Western progressive group life, yet on the other hand, they fully contain “ethicism” (伦理主义) and “upward life” (人生向上), two great characteristics of Chinese culture.
Of course, Confucianism is certainly not the only traditional force influencing the Chinese modernization process, and even the influence of Confucianism sometimes combines with other forces. Thus the direction of modernity is not solely determined by the influence of Confucianism. However, we definitely can see clearly the influence of classical Chinese cultural traditions on the construction of Chinese modernity. THE BASIC FORM, ACTUAL FORM, AND POTENTIAL FORM OF NEO-CONFUCIANISM: CONSIDERING THE HISTORICAL FUNCTION AND PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF NEO-CONFUCIANISM Liao Kebin Translated by Chloe Garcia-Roberts and Adrian Thieret I.
Levinas believes that there will be an ethics to speak of only if when the other is acknowledged, and only with an appeal to the absolute other will ethics have an ultimate basis. Ethics is the first philosophy. Deleuze points out that “the Other” contains other possible worlds, other people’s faces, and other people’s words. Late-period Derrida follows Levinas, also thinking that the essence of ethics lies in generosity toward the other, and giving without asking for reward. . ”44 From this perspective, Liang Shuming’s ethical idea “consider the other more important than the self ”—his interpretation of Confucian ethics—indeed differs from the emphasis of subjective consciousness, and also differs in meaning from the notion of intersubjectivity.