By R. Gilles (Eds.)

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This species carries out both the postbreeding moult arrested within primaries and the complete prebreeding moult in the nonbreeding area (group 9b in Table 2) and may start the postbreeding moult in the breeding area, if the renewal of some body-feathers by some individuals in the breeding area is interpreted as the beginning of the partial moult (Glutz & Bauer 1991, Roselaar in Cramp 1992). There are records of a number of species renewing some primaries in the breeding area (postbreeding moult interrupted within primaries, group 13 in Table 2; Williamson 1968, Mead & Watmough 1976, Thomas 1977, Montalto 1988, Spina 1990, Nikolaus & Pearson 1991, Roselaar in Cramp 1992), but it has never been shown whether they belong to group 5 (suspended primary moult) or group 9a (arrested primary moult).

According to this interpretation, the occasional renewal of some of the innermost primaries in NE Africa would represent the beginning of the prebreeding moult. 3 and part II) in the breeding area is suspended during migration and resumed in the non-breeding area. In Delichon urbica, and probably also in Riparia riparia, its last stages overlap with a partial prebreeding moult in Africa (see part II). Similarly, in many of the Acrocephalus and Hippoiais warblers, the complete moult in Africa could also represent a delayed complete postbreeding moult already started in the breeding area.

Acrocephalus dumetorum, A. agricola, Sylvia hortensis, Hippolais caligata) apparently exploit the temporarily abundant food resources in N India after the summer rains for a complete moult and then migrate further south in early winter when this area dries out (Gaston 1976). Similarly, Emberiza a. aureola. moults completely in E China during autumn, before migrating to SE Asia with a fresh plumage (Stresemann & Stresemann 1969a). The timing of the breeding season also affects the timing of moult in trans-saharan migrants.

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