By Andrew M. Stauffer
Andrew M. Stauffer explores the altering position of anger within the literature and tradition of the Romantic interval, really within the poetry and prose of Blake, Coleridge, Godwin, Shelley, and Byron. This cutting edge e-book has a lot to give a contribution to the certainty of Romantic literature and the cultural heritage of emotions.
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Extra resources for Anger, revolution, and romanticism
19 Horace, in failing to discriminate between sincerity and duplicity, operates under a similar paradigm. As long as the “force-value” of the enunciation is able to move the audience, the truth of the ´enonce´ remains beside the point; this is a general maxim for all orators, rhetoricians, and lawyers. 4), not simply to “move” an audience emotionally but to “transport” them beyond cognitive reaction, by means of an overpowering affective response. 26 Anger, Revolution, and Romanticism Yet even for Longinus, the expression of violent passion is not an absolute good.
Only when that impulse leads to demonstrable eruption, a “rushing forth” of violent action, is anger truly present. Yet Longinus deﬁnes sublimity as “passion . . 4). For the reader, the Longinian sublime results from an interiorization of that rushing forth which overturns all obstacles, a sublimation of physical violence, the imaginative equivalent of an adrenalin rush. 2). Thus, a strangely intense alternative to sympathy emerges, as the reader imagines the speaker’s anger as his/her own. As it did for Plato and Aristotle, Homer’s Iliad serves as a model text for Longinus; he reads Homer as the model of sublime rage, a poet who, to paraphrase Pope’s subsequent judgment of Longinus, is himself the great angry sublime he draws: “In truth, Homer .
O Fear, I know Thee by my throbbing Heart. (“Ode to Fear,” lines 5–8;42) As Weiskel writes of this passage, “The persona is internalized. ‘I see you there’ becomes ‘I know you here’” (The Romantic Sublime, 110). Yet anger, as Seneca makes clear, normally does not partake of sympathetic transference; we in fact rarely become angry as we see others do. Indeed, the moral philosophers of the eighteenth century also tend to emphasize the alienating effects of anger. For Adam Smith, who views sympathy as the cornerstone of man’s moral sense, anger precludes a sympathetic response.