By Joan Beal
This sequence presents introductions to the most parts of English language research. Volumes hide facets of the heritage and constitution of the language similar to: syntax, phonology, morphology, neighborhood and social edition, previous English, center English, Early smooth English and overseas Englishes.
content material: 1. creation: are neighborhood forms doomed?; 2. accessory; three. Dialect I: 'grammar'; four. Dialect II: lexis; five. The Diffusion version; 6. Levelling; 7. neighborhood id/ groups of perform; eight. Stereotypes; nine. end; 10. Resources.
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Extra info for An introduction to regional Englishes : dialect variation in England
In North-Eastern dialects of English, this rule does not apply so long as the second modal is can or could. Thus the asterisked sentence would be grammatical in these dialects. There seems to be a North–South cline of acceptability for double modals: more combinations of modals are allowed in Scots than in North-Eastern English dialects, and more are allowed in the dialect of rural Northumberland than in that of urban Tyneside. For instance, the combination of would and could only appears in the urban area if a negative is involved, but also appears in the positive in rural Northumberland.
2005: 70). 1, the accents of Merseyside and the West Midlands are typologically identical, and that of the North-West Midlands differs from these only with respect to the lack of ‘happY tensing’. 1. The accent of Merseyside, especially in its broad ‘Scouse’ version, is distinguished by the presence of affricated or fricated consonants where other accents have /p, t, k/. Thus rap is pronounced [rapf] or even [raφ], rat [rats] or [ras] and rack [rakx] or [rax]. Apart from the areas of the North-West Midlands influenced by Liverpool (which should perhaps be reassigned to Merseyside), this is not found in any other accent within England.
In the North-East, obligation is expressed by have got to in both positive and negative sentences. Thus, you haven’t got to means ‘you are obliged not to’, whereas in Standard English and other dialects it would mean ‘you are not obliged to’. Finally, whilst shall is rarely used in any dialect of English, or even in colloquial Standard English, in most dialects it is used in first person questions, such as Shall I make you a cup of tea? In the North-East, as in Scotland and Ireland, will is used even in this context: Will I make you a cup of tea?