By Arild Angelsen, David Kaimowitz
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This publication has been built from a workshop on Technological switch in agriculture and tropical deforestation organised via the guts for overseas Forestry examine and held in Costa Rica in March, 1999. It explores how intensification of agriculture impacts tropical deforestation utilizing case experiences from varied nation-states, utilizing diverse agricultural items and applied sciences and in differing demographic events and industry stipulations. suggestions can be given on destiny agricultural learn and extension efforts.
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Extra resources for Agricultural Technologies and Tropical Deforestation
Agriculture continued to encroach upon the ‘marginal’ lands on the borders of heath and forest, while most intensification was in the ‘better’ areas of the lowlands or valley floors. By the second half of the 19th century, the agricultural frontier was stagnating or even retreating. Farmers abandoned certain areas and the forest eventually returned (Bourgenot, 1993). This retreat was linked to a ‘rural exodus’, which accelerated during the period, thanks to urban and industrial growth in the lowlands.
This made firewood acutely scarce and prices doubled between 1780 and 1800 (Friis and Glamann, 1958). The chronic shortage of wood helped provide a climate of opinion conducive to the adoption of new forest management regimes, while the acute shortage triggered their implementation. The 1805 act helped stem further deforestation. But significant reforestation did not begin until 1860. vp A4003:AMA:Angelsen:First Revise:13-Mar-01 13 March 2001 09:54:45 3 Color profile: Disabled Composite Default screen 38 Alexander Mather after its independence in 1814 was not enough to persuade people to reforest, even after the postwar agricultural recession released land that could have been used for that purpose.
In other words, if the rent function in Fig. 1 shifts outwards, the household has an incentive to supply more labour, thus shifting dL to the right. This is the so-called substitution effect. On the other hand, technological progress makes our household richer. We can expect it to use some of its additional income to take more leisure time. As long as the household cannot hire labour, to consume more leisure it must work fewer hours. Technological progress may thus decrease the labour supply, shifting dL to the left.