By Eric Freedman, Richard Shafer
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Additional resources for After the Czars and Commissars: Journalism in Authoritarian Post-Soviet Central Asia
Richter, Andrei G. 1995. ” Canadian Journal of Communication 20(2): 7–23. Ruud, Charles A. 1981. ” Russian Review 40(4): 378–95. Tolstikova, Natasha. 2004. ” Journalism History 30(3): 131–40. Zassoursky, Ivan. 2005. Media and Power in Post-Soviet Russia. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe. PART 2 National Perspectives Oligarchs and Ownership: The Role of Financial-Industrial Groups in Controlling Kazakhstan’s “Independent” Media Barbara Junisbai K azakhstan is known for its authoritarian political system and the absence of guarantees protecting citizens’ fundamental rights, including freedom of speech and freedom of the press.
As was the case with the DCK in 2001–02, Aliev proved no match for the stockpile of weapons used to silence those who dared use the media in a manner that conﬂicted with the interests of the president. On the night that KTK was withdrawn from the air, Aliev had planned on giving a live press conference from Vienna to disseminate his version of Rakhatgate to the public, criticize Nazarbaev’s authoritarian regime, and call for democratic reforms. 34 A er Aliev’s fall from grace, control over the media holdings that were formerly associated with the Aliev-Nazarbaeva ﬁnancial-industrial K A ZA K H STA N ’ S “ I N D E P E N D E N T ” M E D I A 47 group was given to the Kim-Ni ﬁnancial-industrial group (Panﬁlova 2007) or, in the case of Khabar, to the presidential administration.
International Communication Gazette 54(3): 249–65. , and John C. Merrill. 2004. Global Journalism: Topical Issues and Media Systems, 4th ed. Boston: Pearson. Freedman, Eric, and Richard Shafer. 2003. ” Journal of Development Communication 14(2): 57–62. Hopkins, Mark W. 1970. Mass Media in the Soviet Union. New York: Pegasus. Johnson, Owen V. 1999. ” In Eastern European Journalism: Before, During and A er Communism, ed. Jerome Aumente, Peter Gross, Ray Hiebert, Owen V. Johnson, and Dean Mills, 5–40.