By J. F. Parr, B. A. Stewart, S. B. Hornick, R. P. Singh (auth.), R. P. Singh, J. F. Parr, B. A. Stewart (eds.)

From the start of agriculture until eventually approximately 1950, elevated nutrients construction got here nearly totally from increasing the cropland base. on the grounds that 1950, even though, the yield according to unit of land quarter for significant vegetation has elevated dramatically. a lot of the rise in yields was once as a result of elevated inputs of strength. among 1950 and 1985, the farm tractor fleet quadrupled, international irrigated zone tripled, and use of fertilizer elevated ninefold. among 1950 and 1985, the complete power utilized in international agriculture elevated 6. nine instances. Irrigation performed a very very important position within the swift raise in nutrients creation among 1950 and 1985. The world's irrigated land in 1950 totaled ninety four million hectares yet elevated to a hundred and forty million by way of 1960, to 198 million through 1970, and to 271 million hectares in 1985. notwithstanding, the present cost of growth has slowed to under 1 % in keeping with yr. the area inhabitants maintains to extend and agricultural construction through the 12 months 2000 should be 50 to 60% more than in 1980 to satisfy calls for. This endured call for for nutrients and fiber, coupled with the pointy decline within the progress fee of irrigation improvement, implies that a lot of the extra agricultural creation in years to come needs to come from cultivated land that isn't irrigated. Agricultural construction can be increased within the arid and semiarid areas simply because those areas make up tremendous components in constructing international locations the place populations are speedily rising.

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Extra resources for Advances in Soil Science: Dryland Agriculture: Strategies for Sustainability

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Mannering and Fenster (1983) discussed various SUbtypes of these practices which are listed in Table 1. Additional information regarding these practices is given in the chapter by Jones et al. on Tillage Systems and Equipment for Dryland Farming. The practices listed in Table 1 were developed primarily for mechanized crop production, as in the United States, Canada, Australia, and other countries. Although mechanized equipment for such practices may not be available in less developed countries, the underlying principles of these practices for conserving soil and water are applicable, regardless of the type of equipment used (hand, animal-drawn, or tractor-drawn).

Tillage is used for this purpose. Soil mixing implements such as disks, rotary tillers, and rolling cultivators are more effective than stirring (chisels, sweeps) or inverting (moldboard plows) implements for herbicide incorporation. The effectiveness of surface-applied herbicides also may be strongly influenced by the tillage system used because of the amount of residues retained on the surface with different implements. The surface residues may intercept herbicides, thus leaving some areas of soil untreated.

ICRISAT. 1. 1986. Development of management strategies for minimizing the impact of seasonal variation in rainfall. International Consultants Meeting on Research on Drought Problems in the Arid and Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). 1. 1987. Potential for response farming in sub-Saharan Africa. Workshop on Soil and Water Management Systems for Rainfed Agriculture in the Sudano-Sahel ian Zone. ICRISAT, Niamey, Niger. S. Sastri. 1969. A study of aridity and droughts at Visakhapatnam. Annals of the Arid Zone.

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