By James W. Redhouse

The Ottoman Language is the main hugely polished department of the nice Turkish tongue, that is spokon, with dialectic diversifications, around the entire breadth, approximately, of the center area of the continent of Asia, impinging into Europe, even, within the Ottoman provinces, and in addition, in Southern Russia, as much as the frontiers of the outdated country of Poland. The Ottoman language is, in its grammar and vocabulary, essentially Turkish. It has, even if, followed, and maintains an increasing number of to undertake, as required, an unlimited variety of Arabic, Porsian, and international phrases (Greek, Armenian, Slavonic, Hungarian, Italian, French, English, etc.), including using many of the grammatical principles of the Arabic and Porsian, that are given as Turkish principles within the following pages, their foundation being in every one case detailed. the nice Turkish language, turkje, Ottoman and non-Ottoman, has been classed, through ecu writers as one of many " agglutinative" languages ; no longer inflTable of Contents Preface ; observe on id of Alphabets xii; bankruptcy I Letters and ORTnooiurnr; part I quantity, Order, Forma, and Names of; Letters 1; Synopsis of Arabic, Greek, and Latin; Letters four; ? II Phonetic Values of Letters, Vowel-Points, Orthographic indicators, Transliteration, Ottoman Euphony 15; bankruptcy IL Ottoman Accidence; part I Nouns important fifty one; ? II Nouns Adjective GS; ? III Numerals seventy four; , IV Pronouns eighty two; vi; desk of contents; part V Demonstratives 8b; ? VI Interrogatives 89; ? VII Relative Pronouns ninety; ? VIIIDerivation of Verbs ninety two; (Table) ninety four; ? IX Conjugation of Verbs ; Moods; Tenses ;; Participles; Verbal Nouns; Gerunds ninety nine; ? X Numbers aiul Tersons a hundred and fifteen ? XI complicated different types of Verbs , 119; ? XII First complicated classification one hundred twenty ? XIII moment ? ? a hundred twenty five; ? XIV 3rd ? 129; ? XV mixed (Turkish) Conjugation 133; ? XVI damaging and Impotential Conjugations , a hundred thirty five; ? XVII Dubitative, power, and Facile Verbs 141; ? XVII I Verb major a hundred and forty four; ?

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Like the working class, the New Class earns its living through its labour in a wage system; but 46 INTELLECTUALS AND THEIR DISCOURSES unlike the old working class, it is basically committed to controlling the content of its work and its work environment, rather than surrendering these in favour of getting the best wage bargain it can negotiate. … Just as the New Class is not the proletariat of the past, neither is it the old bourgeoisie. 30 However, the westernization policies of the Ottoman Empire during the Tanzimat period31 paved the way to the emergence of the first genre of modern intellectuals.

78 Besides, fast industrialization with its associated rapid urbanization caused social transformation and differentiation during the late 1960s, which became more dramatic with the crisis of import substituting industrialization (ISI) during the 1970s and rise of globalization. The predominantly rural and traditional profile of the country became urban and industrialized. 79 The statist and monopolist strategy of the state prevented the economic development and prosperity of the nation as a whole.

54 Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that every country outside of the West experienced modernization process in a different manner and in its own way. , the immanent social, cultural, and political characteristics of Turkish society have been particularly decisive in the configuration of Turkish modernism. 55 This attitude can be explained by the utilitarian character of the Kemalist westernization process. In fact, this process was initiated with defensive purposes during the Ottoman era in the nineteenth century in order to save the country.

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