By Carlton J. H. Hayes

Excerpt: ...Pretender." The Methuen Treaty (1703) used to be additionally constructive: it allowed English retailers to promote their manufactures in Portugal with no concern; in go back for this concession England reduced the tasks on Portuguese wines, and "Port" supplanted "Burgundy" at the tables of English gents. The Act of Union of 1707 used to be no longer detrimental both, for it verified universal exchange rules, customs, and excise in England and in Scotland. To the in basic terms own union among the crowns of britain and Scotland which have been inaugurated (1603) via the 1st of the Stuart monarchs of britain now succeeded less than the final of the Stuart sovereigns a company union of the 2 monarchies below the identify of the dominion of serious Britain (1707). Sidenote: Accession of the Hanoverians (1714); endured Decline of Royal strength Upon the dying of Anne (1714), the crown handed Footnote: based on the Act of cost (1701). to her cousin, the son of Sophia of Hanover, George I (1714-1727). the hot king, not able even to talk the English language, less to appreciate the complex traditions of parliamentary govt, was once neither capable nor frightened to rule, yet was once content material in simple terms to reign. The enterprise of management, for that reason, was once passed over to a bunch of ministers who strove not just to delight their royal grasp yet to maintain the good-will of the important occasion in Parliament. Sidenote: upward thrust of the cupboard due to the fact that this custom, with the numerous customs that have grown up approximately it, has develop into a such a lot crucial a part of the govt. of the uk at the present time, and has been copied in recent years by way of many different nations, it is very important comprehend its early heritage. Even prior to the accession of the Tudors, the good Council of nobles and prelates which had instructed and assisted early kings in issues of management had surrendered so much of its real services to a ranking or so of "Privy Councilors." The Privy Council in flip grew to become unwieldy,...

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The three countries had many racial and social characteristics in common, and they had been politically joined under the king of Denmark by the Union of Calmar in 1397. This union never evoked any popularity among the Swedes, and after a series of revolts and disorders extending over fifty years, Gustavus Vasa (1523-1560) established the independence of Sweden. Norway remained under Danish kings until 1814. [Sidenote: The Slavs in Central and Eastern Europe] 30 East of the Scandinavian peninsula and of the German-speaking population of central Europe, spread out like a great fan, are a variety of peoples who possess many common characteristics, including a group of closely related languages, which are called Slavic.

There a nobleman’s steward could lay in a year’s supply of condiments, or a peddler could fill his pack with silks and ornaments to delight the eyes of the ladies in many a lonesome castle. [Sidenote: Difficulties of European Commerce] Within Europe commerce gradually extended its scope in spite of the almost insuperable difficulties. The roads were still so miserable that wares had to be carried on pack-horses instead of in wagons. Frequently the merchant had to risk spoiling his bales of silk in fording a stream, for bridges were few and usually in urgent need of repair.

Stephens, Portugal (1891) in ”Story of the Nations” Series; F. W. Schirrmacher, Geschichte von Spanien , 7 vols. (1902), an elaborate German work, of which Vol. VII covers the years 1492-1516. THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. Cambridge Modern History , Vol. I (1902), ch. ix, a political sketch; James (Viscount) Bryce, The Holy Roman Empire , new ed. revised (1911); William Coxe, History of the House of Austria , Bohn edition, 4 vols. (1893-1894), a century-old work but still useful for Habsburg history; Sidney Whitman, Austria (1899), and, by the same author, The Realm of the Habsburgs (1893) 5 Kurt Kaser, Deutsche Geschichte zur Zeit Maximilians I, 1486-1519 (1912), an excellent study appearing in ”Bibliothek deutscher Geschichte,” edited by Von Zwiedineck-S¨ udenhorst; Franz Krones, Handbuch der 33 Geschichte Oesterreichs von der altesten Zeit , 5 vols.

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