By Andrew McGregor
Egypt has one of many oldest civilizations and proudest nationwide histories on the earth, yet such a lot army histories deal with it as an insignificant battleground for different nice imperial powers corresponding to the Ottoman Empire, the French, and the British. In a full of life and stirring narrative, this paintings tells the untold tale of the Egyptian event. It seems to be on the lives of Egyptian squaddies combating at domestic and in another country, and indicates the jobs these infantrymen and their leaders have performed in Middle-Eastern and global background for 500 years—especially within the convulsions that experience reworked the Muslim international in the past centuries.Beginning with an summary of Egypt's old and medieval historical past, the ebook then explores Ottoman army rule, explaining how a tiny Turkish-speaking minority maintained absolute strength through holding army wisdom out of the seize of local Egyptians. Readers will see how Napoleon's failed Egyptian crusade of 1798 brought the state to Europe yet, extra very important, introduced smooth Western affects to Egypt. in the course of the nineteenth century, new fingers and strategies and the emerging strength of nationalism remodeled Egypt because the empire of the Ottoman Turks slowly decayed. Independence was once thwarted by way of the British, who took over the rustic within the Eighties to safe hyperlinks to India. but the British lead the way for independence, retraining and strengthening the Egyptian army to make it the most powerful and so much nationalist strength within the nation. eventually, McGregor's ultimate chapters examine Arab nationalism, and on the Egyptian military within the wars of the past due twentieth century.
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Extra info for A Military History of Modern Egypt: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War
Even the French soldiers were shortchanged in the end; none ever received the six acres of land they had been promised at the start of the campaign. From the beginning Bonaparte never had enough men to police the country he wished to occupy. The solution presented itself by the formation of the Janissaires, a paramilitary police force. Identified by the wearing of a French tricolour cockade in their turbans, the men were mostly Turks, Albanians, and Maghrabis captured from the Ottoman army. In Cairo Orthodox Greeks were prominent in the police, including their formidable chief, Barthelmy Serra.
Qansuh was eventually forced to seek safe passage from the Zaydis for himself and the remainder of his army to depart for Mecca. The garrison at Mocha held out until 1636, but without reinforcements from Egypt they were finally compelled to pull out. 32 A Military History of Modern Egypt Revolt of the Sipahis The Sipahis were mostly located in rural Egypt, where they were entrusted with tax collection. In the late 1580s their wages fell into arrears, followed by deep cuts in pay. The Ottoman governor then introduced a system of tax farming (the iltizam), which eliminated the Sipahis’ usefulness as tax collectors.
Amir Sudun al-Ajami, the Mamluk commander in chief, led a thundering charge of Mamluks The Ottoman left flank began to collapse under the fury of the attack, threatening the rest of the army. The Mamluks now began a series of ferocious dashes against the center, almost forcing Salim to abandon the field, but the muskets of the Janissary infantry and the Ottoman artillery drove them back repeatedly. Amir Sudun and Amir Sibay were killed, and Kha’irbay suddenly led his Mamluks off the battlefield.