By William D. Davies

Madurese is an immense nearby language of Indonesia, with a few 14 million audio system, generally at the island of Madura and adjoining components of Java, making it the fourth greatest language of Indonesia after Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese. there isn't any latest accomplished descriptive grammar of the language, with present reports being both sketches of the total grammar, or precise descriptions of phonology and morphology or a few specific subject matters inside those parts of the grammar. there's no competing paintings that offers the breadth and intensity of assurance of this grammar, specifically (though no longer completely) in regards to syntax.

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If so, then the rule determining vowel height can operate prior to the epenthesis, in which case it is unnecessary to consider these elements ‘transparent’ in the same sense as [l], [r], and []. Finally, [s] behaves differently yet. Internal to a morpheme, [s] is followed by non-high vowels. This was illustrated for word-initial [s] above, and is also clear in the following: (29) [bisa] [t. ɤsar] [nɛsɛr] [pasar] ‘can’ ‘base/foundation’ ‘pity/love’ ‘market’ Regardless of whether or not the vowel of the preceding syllable is high, such as [i] or [], or non-high, such as [] or [a], the following vowel is non-high.

Budi et al. (1986/1987) recognize seven vowels, as do Safioedin (1977) and Zainudin (1978). , Safioden (1977), Zainudin (1978), and Pawitra (2009) posit [i], [ɛ], [u], [ɔ], [a], [ə], and [ɤ] (although transcription systems vary somewhat). Moehnilabib (1979) recognizes six vowels, corresponding to the phonemic inventory posited here. Notably absent in all but Stevens and Cohn & Lockwood is any distinction between [ə] and [ɨ]. And, in fact, no practical orthography ever devised for Madurese has ever recognized such a distinction (see section 8).

This is illustrated first for roots with bilabial stops in initial position. (25) underlying root /pɛna/ /bɛɔ/ surface root [pɛna] [bitɔ] actor voice [mɛna] [mɛ] ‘ask’ ‘count’ The data in (24) demonstrate the Vowel Raising process in deriving surface root forms and actor voice forms from the underlying forms /pɛa/ ‘ask’ and /bɛ/ ‘count’. The underlying forms contain only non-high vowels. In the surface root forms, [pa] and [bitɔ],18 the non-high vowel [ɛ] follows [p] in the first syllable of the first word and the high vowel [i] follows [b] in the first syllable of the second word, following the application of Vowel Raising.

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