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Extra resources for A Glossary of Genetics and Cytogenetics: Classical and Molecular

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The observation of a wild type phenotype in a mutant line does not necessarily mean that this reversion has occurred by an actual "reversal" of the original mutational event, that is, by true back mutation. True back mutation can be simulated by (Green 1959): 1. Unequal --'r crossing-over in the presence of a tandem duplication or by crossing-over between --'r pseudoalleles with positive or negative interference; 2. --'r gene conversion; 3. --'r position effects in consequence of chromosomal structural changes; 4.

S. is the milieu in which cellular formed elements persist and function and the main processes of cellular metabolism are performed. The c. s. g. ). The c. s. or soluble phase may consist of at least three general subfractions: 1. micro molecular subfraction, including water, inorganic ions, and dissolved gases; 2. mesomolecular subfraction, including all metabolic intermediates, lipids, sugars, nucleotides, nucleotide derivates, and other low-information content molecules which are not integrated into a preformed structural element; 3.

4. Diagrammatic representation of the architecture and ultrastructure of an ideal animal (left) and plant cell (right). The mitochondria (Mit) are of the cristae type, the chloroplasts (Cpl) of the grana type. Arrows indicate membraneless connections between different cell compartments. Elementary membranes are symbolized by single continuous lines. : thylacoid; Tpl: tonoplast; Vac: vacuole (slightly modified after Klima 1967). 2. The protokaryotic cell (Chatton 1925) is the unit of structure in bacteria and blue-green algae and shows less structural components classifiable as organelles than the eukaryotic cell.

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