By Roger Crowley

A gripping exploration of the autumn of Constantinople and its connection to the area we are living in today.

The fall of Constantinople in 1453 signaled a shift in background and the tip of the Byzantium Empire. Roger Crowley's readable and entire account of the conflict among Mehmet II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and Constantine XI, the 57th emperor of Byzantium, illuminates the interval in heritage that used to be a precursor to the present clash among the West and the center East.

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According to NATO officials, in the future the military will most likely play a more nonprovocative role in crisis management, such as the forward basing of defensive measures and intelligence which will be a very important factor. NATO diplomats and academics argued that the Yugoslav war and more recently the Kosovo crisis highlighted a dilemma for the US-led alliance. Legge, who was responsible for drawing up NATO’s new strategy doctrine, failure to extend the boundaries of possible action ‘at least through Europe would put NATO’s credibility at risk in public opinion and undermine support for the Alliance in the United States’34.

Nimetz ‘the region is, and historically always has been, a dynamic one through which commerce moves, people travel, and civilisations exchange knowledge, ideas, technologies, and values. When the Mediterranean region has had relative security, the world as a whole has benefited. As a result, the interests of the United States and the European Union are profoundly affected by GREEK-TURKISH RELATIONSHIP AND NATO 23 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 27. For the purpose of this book the term ‘eastern Mediterranean’ will consist of Greece, Turkey and Cyprus.

239–40. Lesser argues that the ‘Mediterranean is the front line in relation to many of 24 SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. S. Policy’, RAND Report (1993). Many Greek military analysts argue that Turkish claims over the Greek islands and islets coincided with the building of a strong Turkish navy. 58. 3. Whitman, ‘Securing Europe’s Southern Flank? 25–6. See also ‘The Mediterranean Region in 2020 and its Role in the European Energy Network’, Commission of the European Communities, MEMO/95/52.

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